Beryllium chloride is a chloride of beryllium, an alkaline earth metal. It is a snow-white sublimated solid at room temperature. It is easy to deliquescence crystals or lumps. It is soluble in water and some organic solvents, and the aqueous solution is strong acidic. It absorbs moisture in the air and can be weathered when heated. It is mainly used to prepare beryllium metal and organic reaction catalyst.
There are many crystalline forms in solid state, including BeCl4 tetrahedrons deposited in different ways. Beryllium chloride exists in the form of dimer Cl-Be<(Cl)2>Be-Cl when the gas phase is 500-600 degrees C. When the temperature rises to 1000 degrees C, beryllium chloride completely dissociates into linear Be Cl_2 monomer, in which beryllium is sp hybrid.
Beryllium chloride is often used as an example in introducing valence layer electron pair exclusion theory and hybrid orbital theory. Many other alkaline earth metal halides, such as calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, barium fluoride, strontium chloride, barium chloride, barium bromide, barium iodide and so on, do not contain two-coordinated alkaline earth metal atoms in their structures, which is inconsistent with the results predicted by VSEPR theory.
Beryllium chloride is very soluble in water and releases heat. The solution is acidic. Soluble in alcohol, ether, pyridine, carbon disulfide. It is soluble in water, ethanol and ether, but insoluble in benzene and trichloromethane. It is soluble in organic solvents. The melt is a weak conductor. It is easy to polymerize into dimers in gas phase and decompose into monomers when heated. It is easy to form complexes with neutral ligands. Anhydrous beryllium chloride can be used as catalyst for organic synthesis.
Toxicological data of beryllium chloride show that highly toxic substances are carcinogenic. Dust can enter through the wound, so that the wound does not heal for a long time. If it happens, patients who inhale dust should be removed from the contaminated area, placed to rest and keep warm. Splash your eyes carelessly and rinse them with plenty of water for 15 minutes.
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